School Resource Officers, 2019–2020

2023 Demographic Differences in Federal Sentencing Report

What's Next: Community Perspectives on (Re)Investment After Less Is More New York


Summary of Significant Findings and Financial Trends Identified in District School Board Audit Reports for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022

Expanding Afterschool Opportunities: Connecting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Afterschool Providers and Schools

Rapid Changes in Teaching and Learning


World Population Estimated at 8 Billion

One Says Goodbye, Another Says Hello: Turnover and Compensation in the Early Care and Education Sector

Promoting Affordable Housing Partnerships in Nashville


Fetal Mortality in the United States: Final 2020–2021 and 2021–Provisional 2022

Medicare Care Choices Model Improved End-Of-Life Care, Lowered Medicare Expenditures, and Increased Hospice Use

Telehealth Adoption by Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment Facilities in the COVID-19 Pandemic

November 17, 2023


This report provides details on demographics and certification of school resource officers (SROs) by the type of law enforcement agency that employs them. It also describes law enforcement, mentoring, and teaching activities performed by the officers. The report found that there were approximately 23,400 sworn SROs at the end of the 2019–2020 school year. About 11,500 (49%) of these SROs were employed by local police departments, 7,600 (32%) were employed by sheriffs’ offices, and 4,400 (19%) were employed by school district police departments. Nearly all sworn SROs received training on the use of deadly force (99%), the use of less-lethal force (99%), and de-escalation strategies (97%) at some point during their career. Furthermore, more than 90% of sworn SROs received training on handling juvenile offenders, mental health issues, and conflict resolution during their career. Additionally, the report found that about 69% of sworn SROs had responded to an incident in a classroom within the past 30 days. About 54% of sworn SROs had arrested a student for drug possession within the past year.

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics

This report uses new analytical techniques and newly available data to answer whether demographic factors are associated with (1) the decision on whether to impose a sentence of prison or probation and (2) the length of imprisonment when imposing a prison sentence. The report found that demographic differences in sentencing can largely be attributed to the initial decision whether to sentence an individual to imprisonment, rather than to the length of a prison term once a decision to impose imprisonment has been made. Additionally, the report found substantial variation by gender and race in the likelihood of a defendant receiving a probation sentence. Black males were 23.4% less likely to receive probation compared to White males. Hispanic females were 29.7% less likely to receive probation than White females. Further, when the analyses focused solely on cases in which the court imposed a sentence of imprisonment (94% of the individuals sentenced), the report found that the sentencing differences were less pronounced than when probation sentences were included. Black males received prison sentences that were 4.7% longer than White males. Hispanic females received prison sentences that were 5.9% shorter than White females.

Source: U.S. Sentencing Commission

In 2021, New York State passed The Less Is More: Community Supervision Revocation Reform This act transformed the parole system, with the potential to generate substantial cost savings that can be (re)invested into communities. This report presents findings from a series of virtual town hall meetings across the state, through which community members shared insight into what resources should be invested in, and how such investments should be made. Specifically, the report identifies several areas that community members who participated in the town halls prioritized for investments including housing, behavioral healthcare, employment and vocational training, reentry supports, and community spaces. Additionally, the report identifies key themes that arose from the community members’ discussion of how they wanted funds to be invested. The report found that community members want funds to be invested in ways that: enhance equity, target people and families who are affected by the criminal legal system, and build on local community and organizational capacity to meet community needs.

Source: Justice Lab


This report provides a summary of significant findings and financial trends identified in the audits of the 67 district school boards (school districts) in Florida for the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2022. The audit reports for 43 of the 67 school districts included findings addressing weaknesses in internal control; instances of noncompliance with applicable laws, rules, or regulations; or additional matters. Audit reports for five school districts included findings considered to be financial statement material weaknesses. In addition, 1 of those 5, and 4 additional school district audit reports included noncompliance and material weakness findings for major federal programs. In comparison, for the 2020-21 fiscal year, audit reports for 8 school districts included financial statement material weakness findings and 1 additional school district audit report included a noncompliance and material weakness finding for a major federal program. At June 30, 2022, the average financial condition ratio (the financial condition measure used in this report is the ratio of the general fund total assigned and unassigned fund balance to the general fund total revenues) for school districts statewide was 11.58%, which was a slight decrease from the average financial condition ratio of 11.98% at June 30, 2021. Of the 67 school districts, only 1 (Lafayette County School District) had a financial condition ratio that was below 3% at June 30, 2022, and, consequently, this school district had fewer resources available for emergencies and unforeseen situations than other school districts.

Source: State of Florida Auditor General

Children and youth have benefited from afterschool programs in terms of academic, physical health, school attendance, promotion, graduation, and social and emotional outcomes. Afterschool programming in general—and science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) afterschool programming in particular—is also popular among school officials and parents. To obtain a national picture of why and how principals and district leaders partner with external organizations as STEM afterschool providers, the authors administered a survey to a nationally representative sample of public school principals (kindergarten through grade 8) in November and December 2022. Schools have direct access to youth and families and, therefore, have great potential to influence afterschool choices. The authors surveyed and interviewed school and district leaders to understand their STEM afterschool needs and interests, including the details on how these leaders go about partnering with STEM afterschool providers. The surveys and interviews illuminated how administrators learn about potential afterschool partners, what they look for in a partnership, and why they renew them. Key findings include that the number one factor about afterschool programming that principals would change would be to offer more STEM programming. Principals said that it is challenging to find STEM program providers in general, high-quality STEM program providers in particular, and the funding to pay for them. According to the survey of principals, 65% of the schools partnering with an external provider of afterschool programming offered a STEM option, and principals estimated that 14% of their students engaged in this STEM programming. Of the eight factors provided on the survey, principals reported that student interest in the activity was the most important component in selecting a STEM afterschool provider and in renewing a contract—more important than either the quality or the cost of the program. However, principals did report that finding afterschool program funding is a challenge. Only about one-third of principals said that they had more funding for afterschool programming as of the 2022–2023 school year, when federal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic stimulus funds were still active, than they did before COVID-19.

Source: RAND Corporation

This research examines the effect of the COVID-19-based transition to online learning on the dual credit program offered in Hawaii. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Hawaii had been expanding its dual credit program, in which high school students could take courses that would yield both high school and college credits. These dual credit programs require partnerships between high schools and colleges. From spring 2020 to fall 2020, students took some dual enrollment courses even though offerings and enrollment declined; offerings and enrollment rebounded by spring 2021. The percentage of course-takers earning both high school and college credit remained about the same during this transition. Examining outcomes for student and school subgroups shows that male students struggled more than female students did with enrollment during this transition, and students in rural schools had a steeper decline in the rate of earning both high school and college credits. However, both groups did begin to recover by spring 2021.

Source: RTI International


Using data from the International Database, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates the world population hit 8 billion on September 26, 2023. There are many sources of uncertainty in estimating the global population, and it’s unlikely this population milestone was reached on that exact date. For example, the United Nations Population Division estimates the world population reached 8 billion on November 15, 2022. The rate of growth peaked decades ago in the 1960s and has been declining since and is projected to continue declining. While it took 12.5 years for the world to go from 7 billion to 8 billion people, the Census Bureau projects it will likely take 14.1 years to go from 8 billion to 9 billion, and another 16.4 years to go from 9 billion to 10 billion. Despite a slowdown, projections suggest the world population will reach 10.2 billion by 2060. Nearly three quarters (74%) of the earth’s population reside in countries where fertility is around or below the replacement level. Around 15% of the world’s population lives in a country with low fertility of 1.6 to 1.8 children per woman. This includes a diverse range of countries like Brazil, Mexico, the United States and Sweden. Another 26% — about 1 in 4 people — lives in a country with very low fertility at 1.5 children or fewer per woman. Such countries include China, South Korea and Spain. Another 23% lives in a country with moderately high fertility between 2.3 and 5.0 children. This broad category includes a diverse range of countries like Papua New Guinea, Israel, and Ethiopia. Only around 4% of the world population (all in Africa) lives in a country with very high fertility — above 5 children per woman. Even in countries with very high fertility, fertility is generally lower than it was in the past. The world population is projected to keep growing despite declining fertility rates. In fact, the Census Bureau estimates the number of infants already peaked in 2017. Instead, population growth in the future will come from larger groups of people at adult ages. The share of the population at young ages has been declining. Today, 32% of people are 19 or younger. By 2060, that number is projected to slip to 26%. As the share of young people declines, the proportion of people at older ages increases. Today, 10% of the world is 65 or older and their share is projected to double to 20% by 2060.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau

This research investigates retention and compensation in the Early Care and Education (ECE) workforce using data from three different government agencies in Texas. The authors employ non-structural methods to compare turnover and pay in ECE with those in other sectors that employ similar workers. The authors use information on race, ethnicity, eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch, and scores in standardized tests to match ECE workers to individuals with the same probability of ever working in the ECE sector but who never did to identify non-ECE workers for the analysis. The results indicate that turnover in the ECE sector is 12% greater than in other sectors of the economy. Additionally, the results show that turnover rates increase with educational attainment. Wages were nearly 20% lower in the ECE sector compared to non-ECE workers. However, the disparity in earnings decreases with educational attainment.

Source: National Bureau of Economic Research

This report examines data on developable land owned by Nashville’s academic, faith-based, and health care anchor institutions, and researched models of institutional affordable housing partnerships that could be replicated in Nashville. The authors also analyze housing development opportunities under both current and alternate zonings, as well as the transit-adjacency of developable parcels (legally distinct pieces of land). The analysis indicates significant potential for affordable housing development on land owned by Nashville’s colleges and universities and faith-based institutions, and for health care institutions to leverage land, financing, and institutional relationships to contribute to housing efforts. The report finds that across 1,027 colleges and universities, faith-based institutions, and health care institutions in Metro Nashville, up to 5,539 units could be constructed on 986 parcels under current land availability and zoning laws. Furthermore, 95% of these potential units (5,236 units) are developable on parcels owned by faith-based and academic institutions. Additionally, subdividing available institution-owned parcels that are zoned for single-family residential uses could accommodate up to 14,151 new units, 10,183 of which could come from land owned by faith-based institutions.

Source: Urban Institute


This report describes changes between 2021 and 2022 in total, early, and late fetal mortality, as well as fetal mortality by maternal race and Hispanic origin and state of residence. Comparisons are made with findings from 2020 to 2021. Between 2021 and 2022, the overall fetal mortality rate declined 5%, from 5.73 to 5.45 fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths. The fetal mortality rate declined for fetal deaths at both 20–27 weeks of gestation (early fetal deaths) (6%) and 28 weeks of gestation or more (late fetal deaths) (4%). The fetal mortality rate declined for White non-Hispanic (8%) and Hispanic (5%) women from 2021 to 2022 but did not change significantly for all other race and Hispanic-origin groups. Fetal mortality rates decreased in 7 states and were not significantly different for 43 states and the District of Columbia from 2021 to 2022. In comparison, from 2020 to 2021, fetal mortality rates did not change significantly overall, for early or late fetal deaths, for most race and Hispanic-origin groups, or for most states, but the rate declined by 4% for Black women. From the time period from 2020 to 2021, only two states, Pennsylvania and Utah, experienced a significant increase in fetal mortality rates. For provisional data for the time period from 2021 to 2022, seven states (Alabama, California, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Utah) experienced a significant decrease in fetal mortality rates.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Medicare Care Choices Model (MCCM) tested a new option for eligible Medicare beneficiaries to receive conventional treatment for terminal conditions along with supportive and palliative care from participating hospice providers. Using claims data, the authors estimated differences in average outcomes from enrollment to death between deceased MCCM enrollees and matched comparison beneficiaries who received usual services covered by original Medicare. Enrollees were 15% less likely to receive an aggressive life-prolonging treatment at the end of life and spent more than five more days at home. MCCM also reduced net Medicare expenditures by 13%, decreased inpatient admissions by 26%, reduced outpatient emergency department visits by 12%, and increased hospice use by 18%. Although the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services did not expand the model, given concerns about generalizability, these results provide evidence that MCCM is a promising approach to transforming care delivery at the end of life.

Source: Mathematica

The study examined temporal and geographic trends in telehealth availability at U.S. behavioral health treatment facilities and risk factors for not offering telehealth. Using longitudinal data on outpatient behavioral health treatment facilities from January 2020 to January 2021, the authors found that telehealth availability increased by 77% from 2020 to 2021 for mental health treatment facilities and by 143% for substance use disorder treatment facilities. By January 2021, 68% of outpatient mental health facilities and 57% of substance use disorder treatment facilities in the sample were offering telehealth. Mental health and substance use disorder treatment facilities that did not accept Medicaid as a form of payment were less likely to offer telehealth in 2021, compared with facilities that accepted Medicaid. Mental health and substance use disorder treatment facilities that accepted private insurance were more likely to offer telehealth in 2021, compared with facilities that did not accept private insurance. The authors note that despite an increase in telehealth availability at behavioral health treatment facilities, 32% of mental health treatment facilities and 43% of substance use disorder treatment facilities did not offer telehealth in January 2021, nearly one year into the pandemic.

Source: RAND Corporation

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