Education System

Remedial and Supplemental Instruction

What is the purpose of remedial and supplemental instruction programs?

The purpose of the programs is to provide remedial and supplemental instruction to students enrolled in kindergarten through twelfth grade who fail to meet state academic standards.

How are struggling students identified?

Each school district is required to establish a comprehensive plan for student progression as specified in s. 1008.25, Florida Statutes. The plan must provide for a student's progression from one grade to another based on the student's mastery of the standards in s. 1003.41, Florida Statutes, specifically English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies standards. The plan must include criteria that emphasizes student reading proficiency in kindergarten through grade 3 and provide targeted instructional support for students with identified deficiencies in English Language Arts, mathematics, science, and social studies.

All students in grades 3 through 10 must be assessed using the statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment per s. 1008.22, Florida StatutesAny student in grades 3 through 10 who does not achieve a Level 3 or above on the statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment; the statewide, standardized mathematics assessment; or the Algebra I end-of-course assessment must be evaluated to determine the nature of the student's difficulty, the areas of academic need, and strategies for providing academic supports to improve the student's performance.

To be promoted to grade 4, a student must score a Level 2 or higher on the grade 3 statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment required under s. 1008.22, Florida Statutes. Students in grade 3 who score at Level 1 must be retained or meet a good cause exemption in order to be promoted.

Districts use assessments or teacher observations to determine deficiencies in reading for students in kindergarten through grade 3. Districts identify their assessments in their K-12 Comprehensive Evidence-Based District Reading Plan.

What type of services are districts required to provide to struggling students?

A student who is not meeting the school district or state requirements for satisfactory performance in English Language Arts and mathematics must be covered by one of the following plans:
  • a federally required student plan such as an individual education plan (IEP);
  • a school-wide system of progress monitoring for all students, except that a student who scores Level 4 or above on the English Language Arts and mathematics assessments may be exempted from participation by the principal; or
  • an individualized progress monitoring plan.
A district's comprehensive student progression plan must require that high schools use all available assessment results, including the results of statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessments and end-of-course assessments for Algebra I and Geometry, to advise students of any identified deficiencies and to provide appropriate postsecondary preparatory instruction before high school graduation.

How are remedial or supplemental instruction services prioritized?

District school boards are required to allocate remedial and supplemental instruction resources to students in the following priority:
  • students in kindergarten through grade 3 who have a substantial deficiency in reading by the end of grade 3; and
  • students who fail to meet performance levels required for promotion consistent with the district school board's plan for student progression.
In addition, any student in kindergarten through grade 3 who exhibits a substantial deficiency in reading based upon screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, or assessment data; statewide assessments; or teacher observations must be provided intensive, explicit, systematic, and multisensory reading interventions immediately following the identification of the reading deficiency. A school may not wait for a student to receive a failing grade at the end of a grading period to identify the student as having a substantial reading deficiency and initiate intensive reading interventions. The student's reading proficiency must be monitored and the intensive interventions instruction must continue until the student demonstrates grade level proficiency in a manner determined by the district, which may include achieving a Level 3 on the statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment.

What interventions or services are available to retained third grade students?

Students must be provided intensive interventions in reading to ameliorate the student's specific reading deficiency and prepare the student for promotion to the next grade. These interventions must include:
  • evidence-based, explicit, systematic, and multisensory reading instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, and other strategies prescribed by the school district;
  • participation in the school district's summer reading camp; and
  • a minimum of 90 minutes of daily, uninterrupted reading instruction. This instruction may include:
  • integration of content-rich texts in science and social studies within the 90-minute block;
  • small group instruction;
  • reduced teacher-student ratios;
  • more frequent progress monitoring;
  • tutoring or mentoring;
  • transition classes containing 3rd and 4th grade students; and
  • extended school day, week, or year.

What are the Florida Standards Assessments (FSA)?

The Florida standards for English Language Arts and mathematics stress a broad approach for student learning, including an increased emphasis on analytical thinking. The Florida Standards Assessments (FSA) measure the progress of students towards mastery of the standards in English Language Arts (grades 3 to 10) and mathematics (grades 3 to 8). The FSA end-of-course examinations measure student mastery of the standards in Algebra 1 and Geometry.

What are the achievement levels and FSA scale scores?

Student performance on Florida's statewide assessments is categorized into five achievement levels:

Florida Standards Assessment Achievement Level Descriptions
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
Inadequate Below Satisfactory Satisfactory Proficient Mastery
Highly likely to need substantial support for the next grade Likely to need substantial support for the next grade May need additional support for the next grade Likely to excel in the next grade Highly likely to excel in the next grade


Achievement Level Descriptions further specify what students should know and be able to do in each grade level and subject as indicated in the Florida Standards. The descriptions are available on the Standard Setting page on the Florida Department of Education website.

The State Board of Education adopted achievement level cut scores for FSA assessments in Rule 6A-1.09422, Florida Administrative Code. Level 3 is the passing score for each grade level and subject. The Department of Education publishes the FSA scale scores for each assessment and achievement level on its website.

Where can I locate assessment scores?

Florida Standards Assessment (FSA), Statewide Science Assessment, Florida End-of-Course (EOC) Assessment, and historical Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test® 2.0 (FCAT 2.0) results may be accessed through the department's website. The website provides state-, district- and school-level reports in spreadsheet and PDF formats. The website also provides resources for understanding the data, packets with graphs and explanations of the results, retrofitted data for implementation years, and links to historical results and materials for the assessment program.

What are some programs available to students that require remedial or supplemental instruction?

Extra Hour of Intensive Reading Instruction. School districts that have one or more of the 300 lowest-performing elementary schools in the state, based on a three-year average of state reading assessment data, must provide an additional hour of intensive reading instruction per day, pursuant to s. 1011.62(1)(f), Laws of Florida. The law authorizes the additional hour of reading instruction to be provided within the school day. Participation in the extra hour of reading is optional for students who earned a level 4 or 5 score on the statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment. This program is funded through the supplemental academic instruction and the research-based reading instruction allocations.
The intensive reading instruction delivered in this additional hour must include
  • research-based reading instruction that has been proven to accelerate progress of students exhibiting a reading deficiency;
  • differentiated instruction based on screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, or student assessment data to meet students' specific reading needs;
  • explicit and systematic reading strategies to develop phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, with more extensive opportunities for guided practice, error correction, and feedback; and
  • the integration of social studies, science, and mathematics-text reading, text discussion, and writing in response to reading.

Reading Scholarship Accounts. In Ch. 2018-6Laws of Florida, the 2018 Legislature established Reading Scholarship Accounts.  The scholarships are for public school students in grades 3 through 5 who score below a Level 3 on the grade 3 or grade 4 statewide, standardized English Language Arts assessment in the prior school year. The scholarships are offered on a first-come, first-served basis, and are contingent upon available funds. The amount of the scholarship is currently $500 per eligible student and may be spent on instructional materials, curriculum, tuition and fees for part-time tutoring services, and fees for after-school or specialized summer education programs designed to improve reading or literacy skills.


Criteria for identifying students with a substantial deficiency in reading. Starting in February 2021, in order to identify K-12 students who are in need of intensive reading intervention, Rule 6A-6.053, Florida Administrative Code, specifies criteria to identify K-12 students with a "substantial deficiency in reading." Students with a substantial deficiency in reading are students with scores at the lowest achievement level on a district-approved screening or monitoring reading assessment, or a student who has demonstrated minimum skill levels for reading competency in one or more key reading content areas, such as phonological awareness or reading comprehension, through consecutive formative assessments or teacher observation.

Student Literacy. Chapter 2021-9, Laws of Florida, addresses student literacy requirements.  The law will

  • enhance student literacy supports by aligning teacher preparation programs and teacher and administrator professional development with evidence-based reading instruction, implementing a progress monitoring system to aid in identifying students that require supports, and establishing a statewide system of literacy teams to work with schools to improve student performance in reading;
  • require the implementation of a VPK program through grade 8 progress monitoring system beginning in the 2022-23 school year designed to provide Florida educators with data to identify students with substantial deficiencies in reading and monitor the effectiveness of interventions;
  • establish the Reading Achievement Initiative for Scholastic Excellence (RAISE) Program, a statewide system for delivering school-based literacy supports through 20 regional literacy expert support teams, which must include evidence-based professional development, assistance with implementing data-informed instruction and evidence-based interventions, and coordination of school improvement plans; and
  • require school districts to provide monthly progress updates to parents of students with substantial reading deficiencies in order to increase parent involvement in educational decisions.

The General Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2021-2022 appropriated $14,500,000 for the implementation of this law, with $8,000,000 appropriated to implement the PK-8 Progress Monitoring System and $6,500,000 appropriated to implement the RAISE Program. 

Where can I find related OPPAGA reports?

A complete list of related OPPAGA reports is available on our website.

Where can I get more information?

What are the applicable statutes?

Whom do I contact for help?

Kathy Nobles, Bureau of Standards and Instructional Support, 850-245-7830, email: